There is very little exposure to paraquat for the consumer of treated crops as the vast majority of paraquat uses do not result in detectable residues (>0.05mg/kg) in foodstuffs.
No risks from residues in foodMost uses for paraquat involve spraying weeds and not crops. Because the paraquat active ingredient becomes inactive on contact with the soil, it cannot be taken up by plant roots. Consequently, for the vast majority of uses, no residues are expected in harvested crops. This has been confirmed over many years by analysis of crops harvested after the use of paraquat as an herbicide. There are a few situations where crops are treated directly when paraquat is used as a pre-harvest desiccant. These uses are approved by regulatory authorities who have confirmed such treatments do not leave residues at levels which represent a risk to humans.
No risks from residues in livestockParaquat binds to plant tissues once it is in contact with foliage and so is not easily absorbed by animals and it is readily eliminated via urine. There is no significant transfer to milk, meat or eggs. Similarly there is no practical health risk to livestock if they are accidentally fed on treated herbage.
- In their report of a periodic re-evaluation of residues for the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), the World Health Organization (WHO) concluded that, “the intake of residues of paraquat resulting from uses considered by the current JMPR was unlikely to present a public health concern” (JMPR, 2004)
- In their RED facts document, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that “the Agency has determined that there is reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children or to the general population from aggregate exposure to paraquat dichloride residues” (US EPA, 1997)
- In their review report for paraquat the European Commission (EC) concluded “the review has established that the residues arising from the proposed uses, consequent on application consistent with good agricultural practice
DescriptionRefers to the package of recommendations and available knowledge to address environmental, economic, and social sustainability for on-farm production and post-production processes resulting in safe and healthy food and non-food agricultural products. GAP may consist of guidelines addressing issues of site selection, adjacent land use, fertilizer use, water sourcing and use, pest control and pesticide monitoring, harvesting practices (including worker hygiene, packaging, storage, field sanitation, and product transportation), and cooler operations.
Authoritative On-line References and Resourceshttp://www.fao.org/prods/GAP/index_en.htm The UN FAO provides independent information on GAP programmes, practices and standards., have no harmful effects on human or animal health” (EC, 2003)