Paraquat for citrus
Citrus fruit make-up a vast family including not only oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruit, but also calamondins, citrons, pomelos and ugli fruit. Integrated pest management (IPMTraditionally, and in poorer farming communities, citrus groves are hoed by hand to remove weeds. This is labor-intensive and time-consuming, and, therefore, can limit opportunities for other activities, including education. Effective use of herbicides can very significantly reduce the resources needed to control weeds. The most commonly used herbicides include paraquat and glyphosate which have no activity in the soil, and the class of herbicides known as ‘residuals’ which remain active in the soil and prevent the germination of weed seeds. Intensive use of glyphosate and residuals has led to changes in weed flora (‘weed shifts
DescriptionA decision support system for crop protection which focuses on long-term prevention or suppression of pest problems with minimum impact on human health, the environment, and non-target organisms. IPM takes into consideration all available pest control techniques and tactics (cultural, mechanical, biological, chemical). IPM emphasizes the growth of healthy crops for better productivity with the least possible disruption to agroecosystems.
Authoritative On-line References and Resourceshttp://www.ipmcenters.org "The USDA's National Site for the Regional IPM Centers' Information System provides information about US commodities, pests and pest management practices, people and issues.") systems have been introduced to minimize the impact of citrus growing on soil, water, air and biodiversity
DescriptionThe variety of life in all its forms, levels and combinations. Includes ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity (IUCN, UNEP and WWF, 1991).
Authoritative On-line References and Resourceshttp://earthtrends.wri.org/ EarthTrends is a comprehensive online database, maintained by the World Resources Institute, that focuses on environmental, social, and economic trends. Statistics on biodiversity indicators are available.. Paraquat has a key role in sustainable citrus production by controlling weeds that would otherwise seriously reduce productivity. It can be used in conjunction with other techniques to manage soil erosion
DescriptionDisplacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) usually by the agents of currents such as, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement.
Authoritative On-line References and Resourceshttp://soilerosion.net/ This site brings together reliable information on soil erosion from a wide range of disciplines and sources. It aims to be the definitive internet source for those wishing to find out more about soil loss and soil conservation., particularly the use of strips of grass or legume cover crops
DescriptionCover crops are primarily planted not to be harvested for food but to reduce soil erosion, control weeds and improve soil quality. They are usually plowed or tilled under before the next food crop is planted, in which cases the "cover crop" is used as a soil amendment and is synonymous with "green manure crop."
Authoritative On-line References and Resourceshttp://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/covercrop.html ATTRA is the US National Centre for Appropriate Technology's Sustainable Agriculture Information Centre. between trees. Paraquat can be safely sprayed to manage the weed flora along the crop rows between the grass or legume strips without fear of damaging the citrus trees. Paraquat is immobile in soil and cannot move to the roots and up into the shoots. Tree bark cannot be penetrated by paraquat meaning that it can be sprayed right up to the base of the trees. Even if paraquat drifts onto citrus leaves there is little or no damage because paraquat does not move through plants like glyphosate does.
Citrus fact file
- 1: Brazil is the leading citrus growing country
- 8.7 million ha of citrus are grown worldwide
- 43% are oranges, 27% mandarin types, 11% lemons and limes, 3% grapefruit
- 33% of crops are grown for juice
- 10 years for a tree to bear a full harvest