Citrus: vitamin C in many shapes and sizes

Citrus are a varied and versatile family of fruit. Oranges are the most widely grown and eaten fresh or juiced, but the smaller, easy to peel, tangerines, mandarins, clementines and satsumas have become more popular in recent years. However, there are many other citrus which collectively are the number one fruit in international trade. Besides lemons, limes and grapefruit, try calamondins, citrons, pomelos or ugli fruit sometime. In tree crops such as citrus, emphasis should be on the management of weeds rather than their permanent removal. Maintaining a particular balance of weeds in the citrus grove is important for sustainability by providing habitats for predators of insect pests and minimising soil erosion


Displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) usually by the agents of currents such as, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement.

Authoritative On-line References and Resources This site brings together reliable information on soil erosion from a wide range of disciplines and sources. It aims to be the definitive internet source for those wishing to find out more about soil loss and soil conservation.
through the anchoring effect of plant roots.

Other facts about citrus

  • Read more about the use of paraquat in citrus here
  • Read an in-depth article about citrus cropping here
Using paraquat as part of an integrated weed management


A decision support system for crop protection which focuses on long-term prevention or suppression of pest problems with minimum impact on human health, the environment, and non-target organisms. IPM takes into consideration all available pest control techniques and tactics (cultural, mechanical, biological, chemical). IPM emphasizes the growth of healthy crops for better productivity with the least possible disruption to agroecosystems.

Authoritative On-line References and Resources "The USDA's National Site for the Regional IPM Centers' Information System provides information about US commodities, pests and pest management practices, people and issues."
programme helps to achieve these goals in citrus groves. Paraquat is very fast acting, rainfast and safe to citrus trees for several reasons. First, it is immobilised on contact with the soil meaning that it cannot move to roots and be taken up into plants. Second, it is sprayed around the citrus trees which are protected by their bark which paraquat cannot penetrate. Third, even if small amounts of paraquat land on citrus leaves there is little or no damage because paraquat does not move through plants systemically like the alternative non-selective


A chemical product used for eliminating all types of weeds (annual and perennial grasses and broadleaved weeds).

Authoritative On-line References and Resources An invaluable source of contemporary information about herbicides and weeds from Iowa State University.
herbicide glyphosate. Paraquat has a very robust environmental profile. It does not leach


The natural process by which water soluble substances are carried downward through the soil into groundwater.
because it is extremely tightly bound to soil particles immediately on contact, so it cannot move into groundwater, or to surface waters by run-off


The occurrence of surplus liquid (like rain) which originates up-slope and is collected beyond the ability of the soil to absorb it. The surplus liquid then flows away over the surface to reach the nearest surface water (pond, lake, river).

Authoritative On-line References and Resources

US Geological Survey's Water Science School