A. Paraquat acts in the presence of light to desiccate the green parts of all plants with which it comes into contact. After application, penetration through the leaf surface occurs almost immediately. This absorption is increased by high light intensity, humidity, and by the specific adjuvant system usually built into the formulation, which ensures good spray retention and wetting of target foliage. Tank mix adjuvants are required if not built into the formulation.
The site of action for paraquat is in the chloroplast. Chloroplasts contain the photosynthetic systems of green plants, which absorb the light energy used to produce sugars. Paraquat is known to act on the photosynthetic membrane system called photosystem I, which produces free electrons to drive photosynthesis. The free electrons from photosystem I react with the paraquat ion to give the free radical form. Oxygen rapidly reconverts this free radical and in that process produces super oxides. Chemically highly reactive, the super oxides attack unsaturated membrane fatty acids, rapidly opening up and disintegrating the cell membranes and tissues. The paraquat ion/free radical process then recycles producing further quantities of super oxide until the supply of free electrons ceases.
Visible wilting of treated plants is apparent within hours under warm, bright conditions, but may take longer under dull, cool conditions. This is quickly followed by the appearance of brown, desiccated or chlorotic tissue. Light, oxygen and chlorophyll are therefore all required for the rapid and characteristic herbicidal effects of paraquat. It is the rupturing of the cell membranes allowing water to escape from the plant material that leads to the rapid desiccation of the foliage.
A. Paraquat is a broad spectrum non-selectiveDescription A chemical product used for eliminating all types of weeds (annual and perennial grasses and broadleaved weeds). Authoritative On-line References and Resources http://www.weeds.iastate.edu/ An invaluable source of contemporary information about herbicides and weeds from Iowa State University. herbicide. It belongs to the Bipyridylium family of herbicides. Pure paraquat salts are white and the technical products, yellow. They are crystalline, odorless, hygroscopic powders. Paraquat is slightly soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in organic solvents. Paraquat is non-explosive and non-flammable in aqueous formulations. It is corrosive to metals and incompatible with alkylarylsulfonate wetting agents. It is stable in acid or neutral solutions, but is readily hydrolysed by alkali.
Paraquat is a strong cation and stays where applied
|Description||White crystalline solid||like sucrose|
|Solubility||Very soluble in water. Not soluble in fat||like sodium chloride|
|Vapor pressure||Negligible, below 1 x 10-9 mm Hg||like copper coins|
|Toxicity (45.6% technical)||Inhalation not possible. Oral LD50 (technical material in the rat) = 283mg/kg||like gasoline|
Molecular structure of paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium dichloride)
A. Yes. Like many other herbicides, some resistance to paraquat has been identified.
However the rapid development of crops resistant to glyphosate (another common herbicide) is stimulating the demand for paraquat as we see more evidence of glyphosate-tolerant or -resistant weeds. Paraquat is an increasingly important part of Integrated Weed ManagementDescription A decision support system for crop protection which focuses on long-term prevention or suppression of pest problems with minimum impact on human health, the environment, and non-target organisms. IPM takes into consideration all available pest control techniques and tactics (cultural, mechanical, biological, chemical). IPM emphasizes the growth of healthy crops for better productivity with the least possible disruption to agroecosystems. Authoritative On-line References and Resources http://www.ipmcenters.org "The USDA's National Site for the Regional IPM Centers' Information System provides information about US commodities, pests and pest management practices, people and issues." (IWM) programs associated with glyphosate-tolerant crops and in other situations where glyphosate has been intensively used for long periods of time.
Surveys exist to help farmers and advisors understand the extent of herbicide resistance and plan coping strategies. Examples of these surveys can be found here:
A. No. There are a number of reasons why herbicide tolerance to paraquat has not been commercialized. One key reason is that the mode of action of paraquat is so fast that it is technically difficult to achieve effective resistance.
Also, where glyphosate resistant crops are introduced there is always the risk that herbicide-resistant plants emerge as weeds in successive crops and reduce the effectiveness of weed control. Therefore, the major manufacturer of paraquat, Syngenta, made the decision not to introduce transgenic paraquat crops to ensures that paraquat remains a highly effective tool (pre-plant, burndown herbicide) to manage glyphosate-resistant weeds.
A. Amazingly, in over 40 years of research, no other herbicide has been found which offers the same unique benefits of paraquat. Therefore, there is no effective alternative to paraquat. As a result, demand for paraquat continues to be driven by farmers who recognize the unique benefits of paraquat’s rapid, contact action, rainfastness and excellent efficacy.
Benefits and Alternatives
When used in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations, paraquat delivers safe, effective weed control and generates greater social and economic benefits, while protecting the land for future generations. The key benefits of paraquat include:
Economic benefits helping farmers improve the output from their land
- Rapid speed of action with complete control of all green plant tissue within 1-7 days
- Increased yields thanks to the timely removal of weeds which reduces competition for light, water, and nutrients
- Ability to work in all weather conditions. Paraquat is rainfast 15 - 60 minutes after application and its uptake is not dependent on temperature or soil moisture making it particularly well-adapted to tropical agriculture
- Reduces labor requirements like hand-weeding and is highly efficient as a tool for inter-row weeding
- Saves time through its compatibility with other herbicides and fertilizers, enabling several products to be applied in one application
- Ideal partner in Integrated Weed ManagementDescription A decision support system for crop protection which focuses on long-term prevention or suppression of pest problems with minimum impact on human health, the environment, and non-target organisms. IPM takes into consideration all available pest control techniques and tactics (cultural, mechanical, biological, chemical). IPM emphasizes the growth of healthy crops for better productivity with the least possible disruption to agroecosystems. Authoritative On-line References and Resources http://www.ipmcenters.org "The USDA's National Site for the Regional IPM Centers' Information System provides information about US commodities, pests and pest management practices, people and issues." (IWM) programs to control resistant weeds
- The action of paraquat is restricted to the part of the plant that it contacts and it is not translocated to other parts of the plant.
- Any excess paraquat does not run offDescription The occurrence of surplus liquid (like rain) which originates up-slope and is collected beyond the ability of the soil to absorb it. The surplus liquid then flows away over the surface to reach the nearest surface water (pond, lake, river). Authoritative On-line References and Resources US Geological Survey's Water Science School of the surface or leachDescription The natural process by which water soluble substances are carried downward through the soil into groundwater. through soil to affect quality of ground water
- Paraquat contributes to the reduction of soil erosionDescription Displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) usually by the agents of currents such as, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement. Authoritative On-line References and Resources http://soilerosion.net/ This site brings together reliable information on soil erosion from a wide range of disciplines and sources. It aims to be the definitive internet source for those wishing to find out more about soil loss and soil conservation. by wind or rain because paraquat only affects the aerial (above ground) parts of weeds and does not kill roots. This helps to bind and stablize soil
- Paraquat is rapidly adsorbed and deactivated upon soil contact
- It is the ideal herbicide for use in conservation tillageDescription Any tillage and planting system that covers 30 percent or more of the soil surface with crop residue after planting to reduce soil erosion by water. Authoritative On-line References and Resources Purdue University-based Conservation Technology Information Centre. and no-tillDescription Also known as conservation tillage or zero tillage is a way of growing crops from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage ie cultivating the soil usually with tractor-drawn implements. Authoritative On-line References and Resources No-till.com: A portal for on-line information about no-till farming. farming
Due to its deactivation properties and its method and target of application, paraquat leaves practically no residues in food. In 2004, paraquat was reviewed under a periodic re-evaluation of dietary residues under the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), “The Meeting concluded that the intake of residues of paraquat resulting from uses considered by the current JMPR was unlikely to present a public health concern.” The 2004 JMPR report is available here.
A. There is no effective alternative to paraquat. Paraquat has unique properties. It is the only broad-spectrum, rapid-action precision herbicide. Other broad-spectrum materials are slow acting, strongly or moderately systemic, and are sensitive to post-application weather. As a result, they are not effective alternatives to paraquat in markets requiring rapid, precision use, crop safety and soil conservation through the retention of roots. Paraquat makes farming of certain staple crops viable in developing countries, generating greater social and economic benefits, while reducing soil and wind erosion and protecting the land for future generations.
A. As with all pesticides, normal user precautions need to be taken when using and handling paraquat. Put simply, these are:
- Exercise caution at all times
- Read and understand the product label
- Ensure good personal hygiene
- Ensure care and maintenance of application equipment
- Use personal protective clothing and equipment (PPE) where required. For paraquat this is defined as using eye protection and gloves when handling concentrated product and normal work wear, such as long-sleeved shirts, long trousers, and waterproof shoes, for spraying pesticides generally. FAO guidelines for personal protection when working with pesticides in tropical climates can be read here.
More detail on the Five Golden Rules for safe use of pesticides is available here
A. The key to the safe use of all crop protection products (CPPs), including paraquat, is education and training. Paraquat has been manufactured and widely used since the 1960s. Farmers, helped by groups such as government extension services, manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, and others, have made great progress in the safe and effective use of CPPs. As a result, farmers have become more competent in safeguarding themselves, consumers and the environment.
Labels are the first source of information for farmers on how to use and apply products in a way that is effective against the target pest yet doesn't pose unnecessary risks for people or for the environment. However, in developing countries, low levels of literacy mean many farmers can't read labels. To help them, pictograms have been developed to show farmers how to prepare and use products safely. These are now used in developing countries to support the text label.
For more information, visit the Stewardship section of this website.
A. No. Extensive long-term field studies confirm—and governments and regulatory authorities, worldwide, agree—that normal uses of paraquat in accordance with the clear label instructions do not cause an unacceptable environmental impact. These studies have shown that:
- Paraquat is inactive in soil
- Paraquat cannot travel through soil
- Paraquat does not contaminate ground water
- Paraquat is not hazardous to fish in normal use
- Paraquat poses no risk to domestic or farm animals
- Paraquat poses no significant hazard to wildlife
For more information on the safety of paraquat to the environment click here.
A. No, paraquat is not PIC listed.
PIC (Prior Informed Consent) relates to crop protection products (and other chemicals), which have been banned or severely restricted to protect human health or the environment, and to severely hazardous pesticide formulations out of concern for conditions of use in developing countries. PIC provides countries with information in the form of Decision Guidance Documents (DGDs) on pesticides and chemicals. Designated National Authorities of importing countries are required to assess the potential risks associated with continued importation of these pesticides and chemicals.
A. Yes. There is very little exposure to paraquat for the consumer of treated crops as the vast majority of paraquat uses do not result in detectable residues in foodstuffs.
After reviewing the available information, the US EPA concluded:
“there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result in infants and children or to the general population from aggregate exposure to paraquat dichloride residues. Further, based on the available data, the Agency does not believe that the effects produced by Paraquat would be cumulative with those of other structurally related compounds.” (US EPA, 1997).
A. In the late 1960’s the US government, perhaps in an attempt to deter people from using marijuana, warned that much of the crop had been sprayed with paraquat and was thus unsafe to smoke.
However, independent bodies have studied paraquat in this use. Jenny PronCzuk de Garbino1 stated: "no lung or other injury in marijuana users has ever been attributed to Paraquat contamination".
On this topic, D.P. Morgan states in a US Environmental ProtectionAgency publication that: "Smoking Paraquat-contaminated marijuana does not result in lung damage as the herbicide is pyrolyzed to dipyridyl (which does not present a toxic hazard) during smoking" 2.
The manufacturers of paraquat market the herbicide to kill green weeds and do not control on which weeds customers decide to use it. For more information on the uses of paraquat in agriculture, visit the Use section of this site to read various case studies.
- Jenny PronCzukde Garbino Epidemiology of Paraquat Poisoning International Programme on chemical safety WHO-Geneva-Book-Paraquat Poisoning.
- Dr J Routt Reigart, Dr James R Robert 1999 Paraquat and Diquat Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings 5th edition US Environmental Protection Agency 1999.
For more information see: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/safety/healthcare/handbook/Chap12.pdf
Note: The Paraquat Information Center reports the facts and does not endorse the use of any illegal drugs.
The view that paraquat does not cause Parkinson’s disease is prompted by the absence of evidence that paraquat is causally related with this disease in humans. This absence of evidence comes after more than 40 years of product usage around the world.
An analysis by independent senior medical and epidemiological scientists under the guidance of Professor Sir Colin Berry (Emeritus Professor at Queen Mary, University of London, and former member of the UK Medical Research Council) and Professor Pierluigi Nicotera (Founding Director of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Bonn) has found no causal link between exposure to paraquat and Parkinson’s disease (Berry, C., La Vecchia, C. & Nicotera, P., (2010). Paraquat and Parkinson’s Disease. Cell Death and Differentiation ,17, 1115–1125).
You can find more information here
Taking all relevant factors into account, there is no evidence that the number of new cases of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is increasing. In fact the available data indicate that the incidence of PD has remained unchanged over the last 70 years (during which time modern synthetic pesticides were first used in U.S. and European farming). Because the incidence increases with age, it can be expected that as the population ages in Western society, more individuals with this disease will be present in the general population. Additionally, modern medicine has greatly prolonged life expectancy so that individuals with PD have the same life expectancy as unaffected people of the same age. The diagnosis of the disease is also becoming more sophisticated with the use of new technology.
A. The neurotoxic potential of paraquat has been extensively studied in laboratory animals. No clinical signs of neurotoxicity or consistent neuropathological changes have been reported following long-term exposures of dietary administration of paraquat to rodents or dogs in regulatory-compliant studies.
Paraquat did not result in neurotoxic effects in modern US EPA guideline-compliant oral acute and sub-chronic (90 day) neurotoxicity paraquat studies conducted in 2006.
In 2006 US EPA stated “Paraquat does not inhibit cholinesterase activity, produce cholinergic-like toxic signs, or affect morphology of the central or peripheral nervous systems. Furthermore, the molecular structure is not similar to those of compound classes known to have effects on the nervous system. Clinical signs of toxicity did not indicate neurotoxicity. As there is limited concern for neurotoxicity resulting from exposure to paraquat, neurotoxicity studies, including a developmental neurotoxicity study, are not required at this time.”
We have extensive data on the safety of our products in use and there is no evidence of neurotoxic effects in humans associated with paraquat.
A. Under normal use conditions (i.e. as recommended on the label) paraquat is safe to users and bystanders. Using eye protection and gloves when handling concentrated product and wearing normal work wear like long-sleeved shirts, long trousers, and waterproof shoes are advised for spraying pesticides generally. Following this recommendation already provides a high and sufficient level of safety for the agricultural use of paraquat.
In 2004, paraquat was again reviewed by leading international organizations, including the FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) and the UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), which is comprised of experts from the WHO (World Health Organization) and the FAO. These experts support that, when used as directed, there is no safety hazard associated with the use of paraquat. Its physical properties make it safe to handle, when used according to label directions.
Europe’s Scientific Committee on Plants (SCP) stated:
“Based on the field exposure studies, corroborated by information on health surveys on operators, the SCP is of the opinion that when paraquat is used as a plant protection product as recommended under prescribed good working practices, its use does not pose any significant health risk to the operators.” (SCP, 2002)
The conclusion derived from more than four decades of use and various reviews by international regulatory bodies, is that paraquat is safe to users, the environment, consumers and wildlife when used for its intended purpose as herbicide. Its safety has been confirmed by its registration for use in nearly 90 countries all around the globe including those with the most stringent regulatory requirements such as the US.
A. The potential long-term hazard associated with the use of paraquat has also been studied. The World Health Organization concluded (Environmental Health Criteria, 1984) that there were no significant differences in all health parameters measured between paraquat users and non-paraquat users, which led the authors to suggest that the long-term use of paraquat was not associated with harmful effects on health. This has been confirmed in detailed surveys comparing the health of long-term users of paraquat with unexposed people.
A. No. The current EPA registration documentation for paraquat (EPA ‘RED’, August 1997) clearly indicates that the EPA does not consider neurotoxicity to be an issue with the compound. The EPA also stated that a developmental neurotoxicity study was not required.
According to the World Health Organization (Environmental Health Criteria 39, 1984) paraquat has not been found to be teratogenic (to cause birth defects) or carcinogenic (to cause cancer) in long-term studies on rats and mice.
A. An endocrine disruptor is a synthetic chemical that when absorbed into the body either mimics or blocks hormones and disrupts the body's normal functions. Like all crop protection products, paraquat has been subjected to a full regulatory toxicological evaluation, including the required mammalian studies. Such studies allow for the examination of toxicological affects following repeated exposure of a range of species to paraquat. Studies such as these evaluate the ability of materials to cause significant adverse effects through endocrine disruption and no evidence linking endocrine disruption to paraquat has been found.
In its report, “Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption” for the European Commission DG Environment, BKH Consulting Engineers lists paraquat as a group III substance, which means there is no scientific basis for inclusion on the endocrine disruptor list. In reaching this conclusion, BKH cites two mammal in vivo studies, which are negative for endocrine disruption.
Paraquat appears on the World Wildlife Fund’s (WWF) list of substances of 'reproductive and /or endocrine effects'. However the criteria used to determine this placement are unclear. WWF’s data were considered by BKH in developing its recommendation.
A. No. Paraquat is not volatile and vapor from the product cannot enter into the respiratory system.
Additionally, the spray droplets produced by knapsack or tractor sprayers used to apply products containing paraquat, or any other CPP, are too large to be respired. Most droplets emitted from spray equipment are between 100 and 200 microns in diameter, but a particle must be 10 microns or less to enter the air spaces in the lungs. The large spray droplets cannot be inhaled into the respiratory system. The US EPA concluded that, “particles used in agricultural practices are well beyond the respirable range and therefore inhalation toxicity is not a toxicological endpoint of concern” (US EPA, 1997).
A. Like many readily available chemicals, paraquat is harmful and fatalities have occurred when the concentrated product has been swallowed in sufficient quantity, usually in an attempt to commit suicide. The label for products containing paraquat states that the product should always be kept in its original container and never stored in food, drink, or other containers. Products containing paraquat should also be locked away when not in use.
According to the FAO specification paraquat technical material as well as SL and SG formulations must contain an effective emetic at minimum levels. These materials may also include colorants and olfactory alerting agents. Syngenta’s paraquat products comply with the FAO specification most recently updated in 2003 and 2008.
Syngenta has added the three 'safening' agents into all of its SL (soluble concentrate) paraquat formulations to avoid accidental ingestion and to deter misuse: A blue dye to avoid confusion with beverages, an olfactory alerting agent (a strong and deterring odor), and an emetic to induce vomiting after ingestion. It is widely believed that these developments have contributed to a reduction in accidents.
The WHO International Program for Chemical Safety classification system of pesticides classifies over 500 chemicals.
|Class||Number of AIs|
|“Extremely hazardous, class Ia”||29|
|“Highly hazardous, class Ib”||61|
|“Moderately hazardous, class II”||123|
|“Slightly hazardous, class III”||122|
|“Unlikely to present acute hazard”||246|
Paraquat is classified as “moderately hazardous” (WHO class II) along with more than 100 other AIs. Information about the full classification system is available here.
A. Yes. When paraquat was first introduced in the 1960s, a common malpractice was to decant pesticides into smaller containers such as drink bottles, without appropriate labeling. The original paraquat formulations were odorless reddish-brown liquids, which led them to be mistaken for drinks such as cola, tea, or red wine. Regrettably, a series of fatal poisonings due to mistaken ingestion occurred.
A. Over the years a comprehensive understanding of paraquat have been developed. Like many natural and synthetic chemicals, paraquat has a harmful effect on the human body when swallowed in sufficient quantity. Paraquat concentrates in kidney and lung cells and high concentrations can overwhelm cellular defense mechanisms and lead to lung and kidney damage. (For more information see Lock and Wilks, 2001.)
For a more complete understanding of how the paraquat mechanism affects the human body and available treatment options, refer to the following website, which contains material jointly produced by members of the Health Assessment and Environmental Safety Department of Syngenta and the Medical Toxicology Unit, Guy's & St Thomas' Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK: http://www.syngenta.com/global/corporate/en/pqmedguide/Pages/index.aspx
A. The treatment for someone who has ingested product concentrate that contains paraquat begins with the patient drinking a water suspension of adsorbents such as bentonite clay, Fuller's Earth, or activated charcoal. This takes advantage of the product's property to bind with clay to render it inactive. Purgatives can be used to help get paraquat out of the system. Treatment booklets with additional information are made available to medical authorities and poison centers, worldwide.
For a more complete understanding of how the paraquat mechanism affects the human body and treatment options, refer to the following website, which contains material jointly produced by members of the Health Assessment and Environmental Safety Department of Syngenta and the Medical Toxicology Unit, Guy's & St Thomas' Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK:
A. In the 1960s and 1970s there were fatalities from accidental swallowing of paraquat formulations. This was mainly due to mistaken swallowing after decanting into non-pesticide containers such as drink bottles. Steps were introduced more than 20 years ago to ensure that people handling paraquat were aware that it contains chemicals and should be used exclusively for the control of weeds. Syngenta, the leading manufacturer of paraquat, has added three 'safening' agents into all of its SL paraquat formulations to avoid accidental ingestion and to deter misuse:
· a blue dye (to avoid confusion with beverages),
· an alerting agent (a strong and deterring odor),
· and an emetic (to induce vomiting).
This has since been incorporated into the FAO specification for paraquat, most recently updated in 2003 and 2008. Accordingly, paraquat technical material as well as SL and SG formulations must contain an effective emetic at minimum levels. These materials may also include colorants and olfactory alerting agents. Syngenta’s paraquat products comply with the FAO specification.
The revised paraquat specification is available here:
Commentators have noted the beneficial effect of these stewardshipDescription The responsible and ethical management of a crop protection product in a way that takes full and balanced account of the interests of users, future generations, and other species. Authoritative On-line References and Resources http://www.croplife.org/ CropLife International is a global federation representing the plant science industry and a network of regional and national associations in 91 countries. These organisations are committed to sustainable agriculture through innovative research and technology in the areas of crop protection, non-agricultural pest control, seeds and plant biotechnology. activities in countries such as Malaysia and Costa Rica in greatly reducing accidental swallowing (Sabapathy, 1995; Wesseling et al., 1997).
In addition, paraquat package labels from leading manufacturers provide clear safety instructions in the language of the country and, in the case of poor literacy, using pictograms.
A. No. The safening agents added by Syngenta are not mandatory in all countries and some, but by no means all, companies that manufacture paraquat use them.
A. Yes. There is no doubt that over the past 40 years since the use of CPPs became widespread, much has been learned about their safe use. Training and education programs focused on effective and safe use as well as publicity about the dangers of overuse and misuse have all served to increase users awareness of the need for care when handling and using CPPs.
Recent evidence suggests that while accidents and occupational incidents still occur, the majority of growers are using crop protection products without harm to their health and a good deal of progress has been made in adopting safe use practices.
A. Like all CPPs, the manufacturers of paraquat are subject to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) code of conduct. This code lays out the responsibilities in distribution and use of the various stakeholders in the industry.
You can view the code of conduct on the FAO website at:
A. Unfortunately, there have been incidences reported of deliberate exposure to paraquat by people intent on committing suicide. While crop protection products are one of the methods used, they are not one of the most frequent and paraquat is not the most frequently used product (WHO, 2001, FDA 2003, Ministry of Agriculture, India, 2000). Often paraquat-related suicides are highlighted in the media because it is a well-known and very popular product.
Studies have been carried out to assess progress with reducing suicides. The results of these studies indicate that progress is being made. For example, in Malaysia, “Following a peak in the 1980s, suicide fatalities involving paraquat have decreased” (Sabapathy, 1995).
Additional information about suicide can be found here:
“Thailand’s Country Profile on Pesticide Poisonings” - Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2003)
“A Report on Harmonized Pesticide Poisoning Database in India” - Ministry of Agriculture, India (1999-2000)
A. It is important to note that paraquat is only one of many chemicals used in suicide attempts. In the countries with the largest rural suicide problems - China and India - the main class of Crop Protection Products (CPPs) is insecticides. Because of their wide use on smallholdings and farms, crop protection chemicals are readily available for these tragic and often impulsive acts. Often paraquat-related suicide is highlighted in the media because it is a well-known and very popular product.
Solutions to the problem of CPP-related suicides are being implemented. Projects that promote and encourage safe storage of CPPs under lock and key are showing extremely encouraging results. Where legislation to lock up CPPs is in place and enforced, mainly in developed countries, self-harm using these products is thankfully extremely rare.
A. We encourage you to review the entire Paraquat Information Center website and its related links for information about paraquat. Use the search engine to help you find specific information and answers to your questions. However, if you have additional questions about paraquat which are not answered here, you many contact us using the Paraquat Information Center contact form.