Weed control

Paraquat is used to control a huge range of weeds worldwide, but to control weeds effectively and sustainably it is important to understand them.
Why does a plant become a weed? How can different types of weeds be described? What are the features of weeds and the way they grow which can be targeted by herbicides for successful control? Why is paraquat such a useful tool for farmers?
What are weeds?
Weeds are usually described as unwanted plants.  Weeds grow on arable land which is waiting to be planted and then a new flush of weed seedlings emerge with the crop.  In perennial crops like fruit, vines, rubber and oil palm, weeds grow continuously with new growth prompted by the weather and changing seasons.
Weeds are unwanted for many reasons: They compete with crop plants for sunlight, water and soil nutrients, reducing yields and quality.
They may provide a habitat for pests and diseases from which these can attack the crop.
Large, climbing or spiny weeds can make it difficult to get into the crop for pest and disease control, fertilizer application, harvesting and other operations.
Integrated weed management and no-till are advanced agronomic tools with common aims to improve efficiency and profitabilty, while reducing the environmental impact of crop production. Although advanced in concept, these tools are straightforward and can be adapted for use in all cropping systems, from highly mechanised ones to subsistence farming, all around the world.
Tillage is a well proven means of controlling weeds, so are other methods good enough to use in an integrated approach to weed management in no-till systems? This article examines how farmers can reap the rewards of both techniques together.
Farmers around the world know just how hard it is to control weeds. They tend to come back with a vengance, especially when the many elements causing weed problems have not been appreciated and addressed. Aiming to manage weeds rather than control them is not only more realistic, but if Integrated Weed Management (IWM) is applied properly, it can reduce costs, protect the soil, and support pest and disease control.
No-till systems also provide economic and environmental advantages. However, in no-till, the traditional means of weed management by ploughing to prepare a field for cropping is not used. Plowing, even though it effectively removes weeds by burial, is costly, time consuming, and can cause soil erosion and compaction.
Paraquat and sustainable agriculture, by Richard H. Bromilow
In his paper “Paraquat and sustainable agriculture,” author Richard H. Bromilow studies the role paraquat plays in supporting sustainable agriculture around the world.
Abstract: Sustainable agriculture is essential for man's survival, especially given our rapidly increasing population. Expansion of agriculture into remaining areas of natural vegetation is undesirable, as this would reduce biodiversity on the planet. Maintaining or indeed improving crop yields on existing farmed land, whether on a smallholder scale or on larger farms, is thus necessary.
One of the limiting factors is often weed control; biological control of weeds is generally of limited use and mechanical control is either often difficult with machinery or very laborious by hand. Thus the use of herbicides has become very important. Minimum cultivation can also be important, as it reduces the power required to work the soil, limits erosion and helps to maintain the organic matter content of the soil.
This last aspect helps preserve both the structure of soil and its populations of organisms, and also sustains the Earth's soil as a massive sink for carbon, an important consideration in the light of global warming.
In Asia alone, more than two billion people obtain over 60% of their calories from rice. It is the most rapidly growing source of food in Africa and is critical to food security. Long grain rices are typically of the indica race and include the fragrant Jasmine rice from Thailand and Basmati rice from India. Short grain rice, typically japonica, is usually more sticky than long grain and is favoured in Japan. Saki rice is grown in Japan to make rice wine, and in Indonesia there are red and black grained varieties. About 80% of the world's rice is grown by smallholders in these places. In Asia, women are often responsible for rice farming as men have moved to work in the cities.
Efficient and productive rice-based production systems are essential for economic development and for improved quality of life for much of the world's population. Plant breeding, crop protection, water management and fertilization have increased productivity and reduced the costs of production.
Will farming and soil quality collide?
World Agriculture and the Environment is an important new book addressing the fear that increasing demand for food and fiber is on a “collision course” with soil quality.
This article is in two parts. In Part One, some of the main issues discussed in the book are reviewed. Part Two then explains how more than 50 years of research and practical use have shown that controlling weeds with paraquat can help provide improved and sustainable crop management practices to improve soil quality.
Part One: What ‘World Agriculture and the Environment’ says
In World Agriculture and the Environment authorJason Clay (World Wildlife Fund-US vice president, Center for Conservation Innovation) reviews the production and environmental impact of 21 of the world’s major food commodities. The main threats to the environment posed by crops, fish and meat are identified and explored, as well as the trends that shape those threats.
Major Issues
Extensive long-term field studies confirm - and governments and regulatory authorities, worldwide, agree - that normal use of paraquat in accordance with the approved label instructions does not cause an unacceptable environmental impact.
These studies have shown that:
Paraquat is inactive in soil
When paraquat residues come into contact with the soil the paraquat active ingredient rapidly becomes adsorbed and strongly bound to clay and organic matter in the soil. It becomes biologically inert and as a result it cannot be taken up by plant roots or other organisms. Paraquat treated soils still maintain an active soil ecosystem with no adverse effects on soil microbes, microorganisms and earthworms. Paraquat cannot be released from the soil or re-activated by the application of water or other agrochemicals.
All agricultural soils, not only those with high clay content, have a high capacity to absorb paraquat.
Mr. Prasanna Srinivasan of New Dehli, India, is a recognized expert in the field of economics, policy and regulatory development and specializes in the impact of global environmental treaties on developing countries. Syngenta commissioned Mr. Srinivasan to provide a balanced assessment of the benefits and risks of pesticides in general and paraquat in particular. Mr. Srinivasan recently completed this review entitled, “Paraquat: A unique contributor to agriculture and sustainable development.
Please click on this link to download a copy of the review:
Paraquat: A Unique Contributor to Agriculture and Sustainable Development
Worldwide, paraquat's use brings substantial benefits to food production and sustainable agriculture; farmers remain enthusiastic about the value that it adds. In contrast to this, some groups have been very vocal in their demands for its restriction or banning and this has led to the production of a large number of reports that contain allegations regarding its safety in use.  Syngenta, the leading manufacturer, treats any expression of concern over safety very seriously and continues to work with authorizing bodies, academics and local organizations to understand and improve the safe handling of pesticides, including paraquat.  The objective of this paper in Outlooks on Pest Management is to consider the need for and benefits of paraquat alongside the issues raised by its critics and thereby to put paraquat in perspective. 
Click here to download the PDF.
 
Paraquat has an important role to play in vegetable cropping because its unique characteristics are particularly suited to the challenges posed by controlling weeds in these diverse crops. Growing vegetables also helps with growing other crops in a sustainable way. Legume vegetables have bacteria associated with their roots which convert nitrogen from the air into forms which can be used by plants as nutrients and these remain in the soil to fertilize following crops. A vegetable break crop, such as peas or potatoes, prevents the build-up of pests and diseases in cereal rotations and provides an opportunity to control weeds by alternative approaches.
Using paraquat for weed control helps to address many of the challenges to vegetable production including soil erosion, leaching of agrochemicals, early harvests for best prices. Paraquat is used to prepare the land for sowing or transplanting and is safe to use for inter-row weed control in growing crops by careful application with knapsack sprayers or from tractor mounted sprayers with shielded spray nozzles. Unlike systemic herbicides which are too dangerous to use, even if small amounts of paraquat land on crop plants they cannot move within the plant to cause damage.
Vegetables fact file 70 million hectares grown worldwide
70% grown in Asia
5 portions a day recommended for health
Millions of people around the world wake-up each day with a cup of freshly brewed coffee and later meet their friends or do business in fashionably expensive coffee houses.
But for many farmers there has been a coffee crisis. Although consumption is growing in some markets, coffee is a victim of its own success, and recently there has been considerable over-supply.
In 1970 the average US consumer drank 36 gallons of coffee and 23 gallons of soft carbonated drinks. In 2000 these figures were 17 gallons and 53 gallons, respectively.
The key to success and the way out of the coffee crisis lies in quality through a sustainable approach to production. Best quality speciality coffee growers can get twice the regular price. Paraquat has a key role to play by controlling weeds that would otherwise seriously reduce productivity, in conjunction with other agronomic practices that protect the environment.