Land preparation

Paraquat has an important role to play in vegetable cropping because its unique characteristics are particularly suited to the challenges posed by controlling weeds in these diverse crops. Growing vegetables also helps with growing other crops in a sustainable way. Legume vegetables have bacteria associated with their roots which convert nitrogen from the air into forms which can be used by plants as nutrients and these remain in the soil to fertilize following crops. A vegetable break crop, such as peas or potatoes, prevents the build-up of pests and diseases in cereal rotations and provides an opportunity to control weeds by alternative approaches.
Using paraquat for weed control helps to address many of the challenges to vegetable production including soil erosion, leaching of agrochemicals, early harvests for best prices. Paraquat is used to prepare the land for sowing or transplanting and is safe to use for inter-row weed control in growing crops by careful application with knapsack sprayers or from tractor mounted sprayers with shielded spray nozzles. Unlike systemic herbicides which are too dangerous to use, even if small amounts of paraquat land on crop plants they cannot move within the plant to cause damage.
Vegetables fact file 70 million hectares grown worldwide
70% grown in Asia
5 portions a day recommended for health
Soybeans stand out from other major crops: broad leaved rather than a grass; a legume, so plants supply their own needs for nitrogen fertilizer while increasing the fertility of the land; and soybeans are rich in oil, protein and carbohydrate.
In the US, soybeans are grown on half of the 30 million hectares on which no-till farming is practiced. In Brazil, no-till has also been widely adopted for soybeans. Broad-spectrum herbicides, led by the introduction of paraquat in the 1960s, allowed the adoption and growth of no-till which does not rely on controlling weeds by burial from ploughing.
Soybean fact file 111 million hectares grown worldwide in 2013
90% or more of all soybean fields in USA and Argentina are GM
70% increase in productivity since 2000
40% of bean weight is oil rich in monounsaturated oleic acid
12% of US soybeans were used to make biodiesel in 2014
13 million hectares under no-till in USA
No-till systems save cash, time and fuel, improve soil structure, reduce erosion and provide havens for wildlife. Paraquat is deactivated on contact with the soil meaning that it can be sprayed to burndown weeds before planting without risking crop damage from root uptake. Paraquat works well even in cold and rainy weather.
Maize, often called corn, along with wheat and rice is one of the world’s top crops. Maize provides basic staple foods for much of the world’s population. All around the world maize grain is a basic livestock feed, and the crop can be cut while still green to make silage as a winter feed. Also, increasing amounts of maize in the US are being used to make bioethanol fuel.
Maize, perhaps more than any other crop, reaches both high and low extremes of sophistication, mechanisation and technology in crop production. But, all farmers need to maximise the yield and quality of their produce, while saving the costs, time and labor needed to grow it.
Broad-spectrum herbicides, led by the introduction of paraquat in the 1960’s, have allowed the adoption and growth of soil cultivation systems which do not rely on controlling weeds by burial from ploughing.
Citrus fruit make-up a vast family including not only oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruit, but also calamondins, citrons, pomelos and ugli fruit.
Integrated pest management (IPM) systems have been introduced to minimize the impact of citrus growing on soil, water, air and biodiversity.  Paraquat has a key role in sustainable citrus production by controlling weeds that would otherwise seriously reduce productivity.  It can be used in conjunction with other techniques to manage soil erosion, particularly the use of strips of grass or legume cover crops between trees.
Paraquat can be safely sprayed to manage the weed flora along the crop rows between the grass or legume strips without fear of damaging the citrus trees.  Paraquat is immobile in soil and cannot move to the roots and up into the shoots.  Tree bark cannot be penetrated by paraquat meaning that it can be sprayed right up to the base of the trees.  Even if paraquat drifts onto citrus leaves there is little or no damage because paraquat does not move through plants like glyphosate does.
Citrus fact file 1:  Brazil is the leading citrus growing country
8.7 million ha of citrus are grown worldwide
43% are oranges, 27% mandarin types, 11% lemons and limes, 3% grapefruit
33% of crops are grown for juice
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) ranks bananas as the world’s fourth most important crop after the major cereals. Bananas are rich in carbohydrate, potassium and vitamins, including A, C, and B6. They are a good source of dietary fibre and are fat-free.
Bananas are not only eaten raw. They may be boiled, steamed, mashed and rolled into balls as ‘foutou’, grilled, roasted or fried; a flour for cakes and biscuits is made in the tropics; and in the Philippines, banana ketchup is popular. A beer made from the juice of ripe fruit is popular in central Africa. Animals, especially pigs, are reared on surplus fruit.
Banana fact file 400 million people eat bananas as a staple food
130 countries grow bananas, led by India
55% increase in production since 2000
6 billion dollars worth of annual trade
50 tonnes/ha grown in Costa Rica, 2x world average
Taro is a tropical starchy root crop which is a staple food in many subsistence communities, particularly in the Pacific islands.
Often called “the potato of the tropics” taro makes up almost 20% of peoples’ daily calorific intake in some areas, compared to only 3-5% represented by potatoes for people in the US and Europe.
Economically, it is an important source of export revenue, mainly to supply ex-patriot islanders living in Australia, New Zealand and the west coast of the US.
As a tropical crop, protecting taro from weeds is essential. Weeds thrive in such hot and humid climates, robbing yield. 
“Paraquat in Samoa is not only helping farmers to provide a staple food but is also enabling taro to become a very important export crop as well. It is the only product I know of that can be used with safety to the crop."
- David Browne, Venture Exports New Zealand. David has over 30 years of experience in the Pacific Islands.
Ever wonder what fuels the impressive size and power of the awesome Pacific Island rugby players? Look no further than taro. Taro is a tropical starchy root crop which is a staple food in many subsistence communities, particularly in the Pacific islands. And while the rugby team members most likely have a broad selection of meals from which to choose, for many people living in these areas taro is an essential part of their diet.
Often called “the potato of the tropics,” its role is so significant that taro is celebrated in festivals and on coins in many Pacific Island cultures. And it is no wonder: taro makes up almost 20% of peoples’ daily calorific intake in some areas, compared to only 3-5% represented by potatoes for people in the US and Europe. Economically, it is an important source of export revenue, mainly to supply ex-patriot islanders living in Australia, New Zealand and the west coast of the US.
As a tropical crop, protecting taro from weeds is critical. Weeds thrive in such hot and humid climates, robbing yield. Hand hoeing crops is one option, but, not only is this time consuming and labour intensive, but it means other opportunities, particularly for education in poorer communities, may be missed. Using the right choice of herbicide provides an effective alternative. 
Paraquat is an essential tool for taro farmers
In this section you will find articles about paraquat's environmental profile. One of paraquat's key chemical properties, fundamental to the way it is used in sustainable farming systems, is that it is inactivated immediately on contact with soil.
 
Paraquat has been an essential tool for farmers in protecting sustainable cropping systems for more than 50 years. Its unique properties have enabled the development of vital new crop production techniques, especially no-till.
This section includes in-depth features that cover topics including:
Paraquat's role in sustainable agriculture
All about weeds and weed control
Important crops and their production systems
Paraquat led to a revolution in land preparation that has had profound economic, social and agronomic effects around the world.
The herbicidal properties of paraquat were discovered by ICI (a legacy company of Syngenta) in 1955 and was introduced to world markets in 1962 under the brand name GRAMOXONE®. Paraquat quickly gained acceptance as a tool for controlling weeds in emerged row crops and tree crops. However, it was the realization that paraquat could replace time- and labor-intensive plowing, which in the 1960s and 1970s led to an expansion of research around the world on a scale unprecedented for a single agricultural chemical and to a revolution in farming.
Why is paraquat such an unique product and why is it so valuable to farmers? Before we can answer that we have to consider the importance of weeds.
Weeds have existed as long as man has farmed. Weeds hinder planting a crop and once the crop has emerged they continue to compete for water, light, nutrients and space. Weeds need to be removed before planting and controlled thereafter.   There are several ways to control weeds:
Hand Weeding is hard, debilitating and tedious work. It can occupy the farmer and his family for many hours of the day.  In many parts of the world hand weeding is the most time-consuming human activity aside from sleeping.